Mass media – miley cyrus

Consider the role of the new technology in your case study. How has it enhanced audience engagement and activity? (marks) Robin Fenny, well known for her stage name ‘Airman’s a Barbarian recording artist and actress. Signed on to ROCK nation record label, run by Jay-z an ex-musician in the hip-hop world. Airman’s music is related to her life and of her womankind, which is shown across by her music video and also by song lyrics.

The target audience for Iranian would be from the ages of 18 and onwards and she is shown in exploitive ways , Iranians image at first was ally girl laid back and innocent her hair was natural and long and she liked to show of her figure in elegant outfits whereas now, Iranian has said she is not a role model for people’s children and has the right to wear skimpy outfits, suggestive imagery, swearing, drinking and smoking are only some of the vices she partakes in publicly, this is also seen in her music video and magazine covers at time not only that the magazines she features in are all grown up magazine such as EEL.

However despite her appearances some of her songs content is more slang than more formal ND this requires some youths to actually pay attention to her music despite the fact there not the target audience, making a secondary audience. A secondary audience of Iranian fans would listen to her for its similarities to ‘urban music’ in style. Another secondary audience would be the (possibly males) fans of Airman’s music because of her sexuality and also youth. The target audience of her website would be fans of Airman’s who have actively searched for her Also, the website is linked to from the Rock Nation Defer.

Jam Recordings website so a secondary audience of artists fans who happened to be on the website will see it. Other secondary audiences include those who have the trailer ‘suggested’ to them on Youth. With the use Youth her music videos will encourage audience to discuss about her music, also her music video -Debate topic area in the video that the audience may of liked and giver her feedback This would be put out by her producer Jay-z , for her to get more social fame , the use of new technology with other sources such as Twitter or Faceable page- ‘Like’ and writing on wall.

Despite this with is produced by her producer Jay-z , Iranian also manages it herself by having Mainstream which she posts personal pictures which her website or Faceable sources wouldn’t have . Also with E-shopping gives the opportunity to buy DVD, CONCERT& MERCHANDISES also choose to watch bonus features including behind the scenes of photo shoots and music videos. Allowing fans to directly buy goods without an intermediary service. Airman’s provides us with a use of gratifications different worlds in which she lives as being an independent woman.

Her personal identity-As a strong woman who can go through anything and still lift herself from the stressful. Websites linked to the when Iranian did a talk on Opera about her domestic violence with ex- boyfriend Chris brown had links to domestic violence helpline to enable audiences of today to understand the problems she had and encouraging anyone who goes through that sort of problem there’s help out there . She values herself as a woman, with Feminine values which are also explored in the album, trailer & website which he audience will be able to relate to.

The Iranian website allows active audience letting them be able to give their opinions and perhaps influence the future success of the album , Positive/negative reviews also featured encouraging freedom of speech, audiences are then encouraged to ‘review the review emphasizing active audience. The more active audience the more people will be encouraged to view due to what may be said on her website , gaining more fans and making her music rise in the music rank and her earning of EYE million go up.

Effects of mass media worksheet

In 1946, about 17,000 televisions existed in the United States; within 7 years, two-thirds of American households owned at least one set. (“Media and Culture”, Chi. 1, p. 2) Television brought along the ability for Americans to not only ear a certain message but for them to see it also. BBC, NBC, and CBS were the 3 major networks that controlled most of the things that Americans watched on television. After television the next major development in mass media was the internet. The first computers were big and bulky and were mainly used by businesses. Eventually computers that people could have in their home were produced. People could access the internet through the phone lines in their home. The internet became a new way for people to communicate with others all around the world.

It also opened up many other possibilities for people like doing research, or shopping. How did each development influence American culture? The development of radio influenced American culture in many ways. It opened up a whole new way marketing for those who were trying to sell products. It gave them the ability to reach massive audiences they could not reach before. Radio became the main source of entertainment for most Americans early in the 20th century. They would get their news updates, listen to sporting events, and listen to advertisements.

Many believe everything that was said on the radio and lived their lives according to what they heard. From what food to eat, what clothes to wear, radio gave them a sense of how they should be living. With the development of television it gave Americans the ability to put a face to the voice we hear on the radio. I would say that television is a big part of most people’s lives today. Many people today form their beliefs and opinions about certain things from what they see about it on the TV. Politics is a very good example of this.

The development of the internet has major influences on American culture today. Most of the world uses the internet daily in some form whether it is on our computer, tablet, smartened or some other internet ready device. The internet has opened many doors that were not open in years past. One example is it gives people that are not able to attend college in person a chance to earn a college degree. The internet has now become one of the main ways that people communicate. It offers us the ability to stay in touch with friends and family through social media and it gives us ways to meet new people.

Advantages of mass media

Mass media refers collectively to all the media technologies that are intended to reach a large audience via mass communication. There are various forms of mass media such as radio, television, movies, magazines, newspapers and the World Wide Web. Mass Media enjoys a very prominent role in our lives and thus, it is believed to influence our society. There are positive and negative effects of mass media on our society. This essay will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of mass media and state if the advantage or disadvantage outweighs the other.

The first advantage of mass media is that it promotes democracy. Talk shows and debates that are conducted on the radio gives people chance to voice out their opinions and express their views of ideas about a particular issue. This use of radios makes it a “free market place of ideas” where people get informed of the multiple ideas that can be learned about a topic. Also this advantage of mass media allows arguments to be otherwise of the discussed perspective of an issue to voice out the contrasting feelings of people without the fear of being pointed to by the authorities f opinions are subjective.

Moreover, free press keeps the government under constant monitoring and checks. It helps the general public to question issues that highlight policy failures, maladministration, scandals and corruptions and this makes mass media the voice of the disadvantaged. A long tradition of liberal theorists claimed that a free and independent press within a nation can play a vital role in the process of demagnification by contributing towards the right of expression, thought and conscience, strengthening the responsiveness of government to all citizens and roving a pluralist platform of political expression for a multiplicity of groups.

Thus, radio being an example shows the positive relationship between mass media and democracy. Furthermore, mass media promotes health education. A way in which societies can grow is through good health and studies assert that media has a responsibility to help people live a healthy life. In Uganda, for instance, FM radios conducted programs where medical doctors were invited to a program to talk about general or specific diseases, their causes, symptoms and how to avoid these diseases or where o seek treatment.

Namely, Radio-Wa conducted a program, Meet The Doctor, on which a doctor from Lira Hospital appeared every Sunday from 5. 00 pm and discussed popular medical issues, such as, current health problems of reproductive health diseases and sexually transmitted diseases, for about an hour. Through another research, it was found that radio listeners took active part in these kinds of programs and they were able to learn about many diseases that they were suffering from unknowingly. Majority of the listeners were able to cure their diseases. Thus, ass media assists people to keep informed about medical and health issues.

In addition, mass media plays a very vital role in accounting for agricultural trade. Radio, one of the fastest forms of mass communication, has been used in communicating farm information to farmers for a long time and since then radio has been used as a mass communication for agricultural development. Rural communities need information on supply of input, early warning systems for drought and diseases, new technologies and market price and information about their competitors. Such information through mass media contributes to the expansion of agriculture.

After looking at factor such as the continuing expansion of market oriented agriculture and the increasing complexity of input requirements, studies suggested that there is a need for a continues education of farmers and extensions and thus concluded that radios and television would be a good way to disseminate information to them. Another research showed that 58 % of the respondents regarded radio as the most effective channel for dissemination of agricultural information. Thus information about trade from mass media would likely result in infecting the whole economy along side with the entrepreneurs of such trading businesses.

On the other hand, mass media broadcasts negative information to teen gaggers, especially females, about sex related topics. Movies and televisions are two examples of sources from where teens absorb information about sex and sexuality. These sources give unrealistic images of the portrayed topics. A study shows that an average teen eager is exposed to approximately 14000 references of sex of which less than a percent of the references imply information about abstinence, birth control, arrogance risks, and sexually transmitted diseases.

In addition, mass media uses females as sex objects. In most music videos, females are approximately half the time dressed in clothes that expose their breast and rear ends. The sexual attractiveness of music videos and similar imaged mass media encourages teens as well as adults to expose themselves in public, inviting them to become victims of unethical crimes, such as, rape. Moreover, mass media depicts non realistic body images. This disadvantage of mass media depiction leads majority of the viewers toward unhealthy eating habits.

Young people are getting encouraged by skinny models on the TV to lose weight and get their body into a sexy image. Researchers are claiming that males are becoming more insecure about their physical appearance as advertisements are painting images of idealistic well built muscular body. A study found that girls as young as eight years old are weight conscious and are on strict diets. Many other females smoke to keep their weight off and through research, it is found out that there is approximately 400% increase in eating disorder since 1970. Like females, boys also tend to smoking to lose weight.

A survey by Teens Magazine reported that 27% of the females felt that media pressured them to have a perfect body and 69% of girls state that magazine models influence their thought of being slim and slender. Media’s role in portraying unrealistic images of body figures can lead to serious health problems and deadly diseases as attendants to media are evidently being influenced by the false images. In addition, mass media promotes gender and racial unfairness in a society. Women, through media, are treated in disrespectful manners and are referred by the use of unethical words, such as, “a where” or “a slut”.

These kinds of words can be heard over the radio and seen in movies and televisions, for instance, the use of the word “bitchy” in reference to women can be seen in wrestling programs exposed young children to witness it without supervision. Advertisements also promote gender biasness as they mostly include women in a sexual way to sell product. A study on advertisements showed that males are only seen in 25% of the advertisements on scantily wears, for example, underwear advertisements. The same study quoted that roughly 62% of white women were noticed in the same kind of advisements and the guru for black women was 53% only.

Also, black women were mostly shown in animal prints and in predatory poses to highlight their powerlessness. Thus, mass media is openly bias towards the sexes and races of different kinds of people. Besides its other disadvantages, mass media is known to lead young children to aggressive violence. Media violence is harmful to kids because of their inability to differentiate between reality and fantasy. A study showed that by the age of 18, an average teen eager has viewed approximately 200000 acts of violence on television, mooring other sources of mass media.

These violent clips increase aggressiveness and anti social behavior in children and it also increases their thirst for violence in the real life. Hence children are traumatized by the violent images and as a result they end up committing violent acts themselves. In conclusion, it is clearly argued that mass media has both advantages and disadvantages. The issues that are discussed in this essay evidently suggest that the disadvantage of mass media outweighs the advantages yet some of the disadvantages of mass media can be avoided.

Effects Of Mass Media Paper

At a steady pace, mass media progressed over time; new emerging technology is changing the way people view the world. Before, the modern forms of media came to pass, people viewed media through verbal interaction and writing. Today, media is seen in many forms: television, radio, cellular devices, Internet, satellites, newspapers, and many more.

To understand mass media completely, the focus must shift toward the major developments in the evolution of mass media in the last century, America’s influence from the major developments, the meaning behind Edie convergence, and the implications toward everyday life. In the last century, the evolution of mass media advanced rapidly. During this time, many developments surfaced some developments more than others. Throughout the expansion of mass media the telegraph, telephone, and radio emerged. The telegraph and telephone were a method of long distant communication transmitted through wires to receive and give information.

Radio sent out information to places unreachable by wires from a telegraph or telephone. Using the radio, telegraph, and telephone as forms of communication allowed newly developed nations to inflate heir military, financial power, and broadcast information in expedient time. In the past people used phonographs a musical instrument as another means of mass media. As middle-class individuals and families started to grow sociably and financially their leisurely interest peaked. Newspapers and magazines merged together to make communication more advanced and effective.

Newspapers and magazines became another source for individuals to locate information. Television and film is another major development of the last century, which brought about many changes. Television allowed everyone a visual picture of the circumstances ongoing on around them through informational and entertainment news. Film simply enhanced the visuals and effects of what people saw on regular television. Bigger and brighter than television, creativity and creative direction was more acceptable in film. Thus far, the Internet is the biggest mass media development people have seen in the last century.

Other ways to communicate emerged because of the persistent efforts of creators. E-mail, instant messaging, web chatting, social networking, and advertising connect to the dynamics of the Internet. Over the progression of time, society has relied heavily on the Internet to stay connected to family and friends. The Internet also plays a pivotal role in people’s access to reliable and resourceful information. The discovery of new information is approaching as mass media will continue to grow exponentially. The developments of the last century placed information in the palm of society hands.

Not only did the improvements of the last century influence American culture, but also these advancements changed individual’s assessment and outlook on the world. Today, the use of the telegraph no longer exists. The telephone is still functioning electronic communication device many people continue to use. With the innovations of technology, society uses cellular and smart phone devices for prompt response. Owning a cellular device or smart phone allows people to stay connected to family, friends, personal, and business matters.

Smart phones give individuals the option to send e-mail, text messages, instant chat, and picture mail, as another way to interact with each other. Face-to-face contact is less commonly seen due to the progress of cellular devices. The radio evolved into a broad communications system. The structure of radio continues to supply people with information. The demand for diversity in information changed; everything from sports news, live feed games, music of many genres, religion stations, radio shows, local news channels, and advertisements is heard on radio.

Still today the original sounds of music continue to circulate and transform. The variety of music has broadened, opening the doors for an array of talent to take flight. Once titled a phonograph, is better known as a turntable today; for entertainment purposes Dad’s use turntables. Modern times now, music is played on compact disc instead of record players or cassette taps. As technology developed pass radios, citizens played music through compact disc players, portable compact disc players, computers, and digital video disc. Newspaper and magazine options have multiplied.

Wall Street Journal, USA Today, New York Times, Chicago Tribune, Los Angels Times, and the Washington Post are a few from many newspapers that circulate in several states. Magazines have grown from the typical format of the past. Nowadays, editorial, home dcord, parenting, cooking, high fashion, sports, celebrity gossip, and children magazines are the trending topics people find in the magazines. Regardless of the yep of newspaper or magazine; political, economic, and social issues are still addressed. The types of television sets emerged from black and white to color, analog to display, and high definition.

The display of television sets slowly revolutionized from tube to plasma, liquid crystal display to light emitting diode, and three dimensional. Television is available through broadband, satellite, and digital service providers. Through time film has taken many names cinema, movies, and motion pictures. Motion pictures developed gradually to the most important tools of communication, entertainment, and mass media in the 20th and 21st century. The Internet changed how rapidly consumers obtained information. Instead of snail mail and newspapers, every few seconds or minutes news and information is updated.

The Internet has replaced traditional methods of media such as newspapers, local news, and radio. Today, society is completely dependent on the Internet as the primary source of information more than ever before. The term media convergence stems from specialist and critics utilizing the term to illustrate the transformation from traditional media content, to modern media content, and media companies. The Internet is now the facilitator of e-mails, television, radio, music, movies, and sews from the design of pads, smart phone devices, computers, and laptops.

Media convergence in the world of business is changing the way consumers receive service. From cable television, Internet access, and telephone service consumers options to enhance the experience of media is expanding. Technology will continue to revolutionize areas of mass media as time shifts. Due to the approaching developments of future media; media literacy is an essential skill citizens must acquire. To prepare for the inevitable growth of media, people must employ effective critiquing, analyzing, comprehension, and evaluation proficiencies too successfully pep up with the demands of mass media.

Mass Media Studies

Online versions of newspapers are not a profitable enterprise in India – Access to the Internet is fairly widespread in the cities, though mainly via Cyber Cafes, schools, colleges and offices, though the cost of access at home is still unaffordable for most Indians. Home access to the net is limited to a small minority of the upper middle class in Tier 1 and Tier 2 cities. The situation in rural areas is far worse. Except for around five thousand e-copulas (Internet Kiosks), rural India is ill-served. The largest segment of around the 42 million users are in the 18-35 age group; they comprise half of all users.

But only 66% of these are ‘active users’, that is those who use the net at least once a month. Most are ‘ever’ users’, those who access the net once in a while. 1 1 . Using Multimedia one can make academic presentations, business presentations, devise games, operate information kiosks etc. Following are the possible areas of application of multimedia: Can be used as a great support in planning and executing any project; Can be used to explain or propose a concept; Using Multimedia while preparing a content for any topic makes the process more organized and precise. 12.

Vivid Bahrain was started on 2nd October 1957, as a service of ‘light entertainment’ to compete with Radio Ceylon, which had begun directing a commercial service to India on powerful short-wave transmitters. Earlier, AIR had banned film music on its programmers, for it was felt that film music was too cheap and vulgar to be broadcast on AIR and its regional services. Sponsored programmers were introduced in May 1970. Initially, 60% of the time was devoted to film music. The rest of the time was given to devotional music, short plays, short stories and poetry recitals. 13.

Journalism as a craft, a profession and even as a cultural industry and a business, s over three centuries old. It was made possible by the coming together of a number of technologies as well as of several social, political and economic developments. The main technologies that facilitated the development of large-scale printing and distribution of print material were the printing press, the telegraph and the railways. The industrial revolution and the growth of capitalism, democracy and the public sphere provided the impetus and the support for rapid developments in the press. 4. Tabloid Journalism’ is frequently termed ‘yellow Journalism’ primarily because of TTS tendency to sensationalist and trivialize events, issues and people. The staple of the ‘tabloids’ is the private lives of famous people, crime, accidents, disasters, public corruption, sex, etc. (E. G. Midday, Iambi Mirror, Pun Mirror). Tabloid Journalists are believed to indulge in ‘Checkbook Journalism’ which implies that the subjects of the news stories are bribed to sell their true confessions’.

Such Journalists are also believed to indulge in ‘keyhole Journalism’ or ‘sting Journalism’ in their attempts to probe the private sexual infidelities and peccadilloes of well-known people and public officials. Then there is ‘Page 3’ Journalism which focuses on the social lives of celebrities and film stars and sports heroes. These Journalistic practices raise several ethical questions about the invasion of the privacy of individuals and the publics right to information. 15. Analogue Signal- An analogue signal is any continuous signal.

Varying quality of a signal 6 represents changes in the process. Analogue is usually thought of in an electrical context; however, mechanical, pneumatic, hydraulic, and other systems may also convey analogue signals. Real-world values are measured or dealt within real-world parameters. Digital Signal- A digital system uses discrete (discontinuous) values. The information represented can be either discrete, such as numbers, letters or icons, or continuous, such as sounds, images, and other measurements of continuous systems. Digital is most commonly used in computing and electronics.

Real-world information is converted to a digital format as in digital audio and digital photography. 16. Subjective. Content -2 marks. Expression-2 marks. 17. Jerome Burner [B. 1915- USA] is an eminent psychologist, who has made landmark contribution to cognitive psychology, the study of human thinking and intelligence. In 1991, he published an article in the academic Journal ‘Critical Inquiry’ entitled “The Narrative Construction of Reality. ” He outlines ten important characteristics of Narrative and they can be stated in a simplified manner as follows . Time – Narratives take place over a period of time. . Particularity: Narratives deal with particular events. 3. Characters with qualities: The characters within Narratives have “beliefs, desires, theories, values, and so on”. 4. Story: Narratives are composed as a selected series of events that constitute a “story. ” 5. Canonist and breach: Stories are about some unusual happenings that breaches” the canonical (I. E. Normal) state. 6. Referentially: The principle that a story in some way is always related to reality, although not in a direct and provable way. 7. Generics: The story can be classified as a genre. . Imperativeness: The observation that narrative in some way supposes a claim about how one ought to act. It may render moral suggestion perhaps. This follows from canonical and breach. 9. Context sensitivity and negotiability: Narrative requires a negotiated role- meaning an active parameterizations author or text and reader. The readers/receivers have o understand the context of the narrative, and ideas like suspension of disbelief. 10. Narrative accrual: Finally, the idea that stories are cumulative, that is, that new stories usually are born from older ones. 8. Celebrity endorsements can be very popular and build strong associations in the buyers, but they are quite expensive to produce and air on prime time. Even state Governments are using celebrities as brand ambassadors. Merchandise- good, clothes bearing the logo or names or designs of the products are another popular way to advertise, but it will be limited to the class of buyers. It is also ladled Specialty Advertising. A company can have its name put on a variety of items, such as caps, glassware, gym bags, Jackets, key chains, and pens.

Since these items remain in use over a long period of time, most companies are successful in achieving their goals for increasing 7 public recognition and sales through these efforts. Games (Mobile and computer) can be devised to promote the brand, but the reach is limited to mostly the young or tech savvy consumers. Covert advertising is presently a hot trend in promoting products and services. It embeds a product or brand in entertainment and media. Like Gaston Martin has promoted itself as the high profile car used by the legendary character James Bond.

The brand and car will have a very dramatic visual presence in the film. 19. “Quota sampling is a method for selecting survey participants. In quota sampling, a population is first segmented into mutually exclusive sub-groups. Then Judgment is used to select the subjects or units from each segment based on a specified proportion. For example, an interviewer may be told to sample 200 females and 300 males between the age of 45 and 60. This means that individuals can put a demand n who they want to sample (targeting)” {Rest of the answer is subjective} 20.

Brief introduction of the three audience theories. Analysis – Hypodermic theory and Twisted flow theory saw the audience as passive or made up of people who simply accepted whatever was put in front of them. They assumed that the content of the media has some effect on the audience members and the researchers spent their time trying to locate and measure those effects. However, rarely substantial effects were found, perhaps because the model for the audience was too simplistic. In these models latter following the gratification approach, the audience is active.

Audience members are seen as consumers of a media product, and as with consumers of other goods and services, they shop around, consider alternatives, and make choices. The uses and gratifications approach seems to provide a richer way of looking at the audience. Instead of asking,”How does the media change our minds? ” the uses and gratifications researchers ask “What is the role of media in our lives? ” 21 . Student should be able to discuss any five points from the fluoridating the process of Adaptation: I. A new narrative is formed. It. The new narrative in formed another medium. Iii.

Mass Media Worksheet

Many Americans at that time would crowd around the radio to chive entertainment programming in the evening as well as news updates about the war. Sometime during the sass’s television was added to the list of media sources along with newspapers and radios. Many Americans who could not afford to have a television still relied on the radio and newspapers for their information. The launch of the first satellite in 1962 gave America access to worldwide news and events. Today the use of satellite technology can tell you where you are going if you don’t have a map or tell you where you left your cell phone.

The use of these new genealogical inventions occurs every day. Since then to the present day many other forms of mass media have emerged as forms of communication. Mobile phones, computers, and the internet. I know older Americans may prefer a newspaper but many people simply check the news at their computer when they get to work. Even radio stations broadcast over the internet through Smartened applications. With the popular tablets and pads most literature is purchased online from stores like Amazon.

I am very thankful for the advances in technology that are available today, thou them it would be nearly impossible for working parents like me to continue their education and provide for our families simultaneously. How did each development influence American culture? Each development had a great influence on American culture. In radio’s early years the government and the U. S. Navy used radio to communicate with other ships but it was commercial entrepreneurs who pioneered radio broadcasting and figured out how to reach millions.

Advertisement is a significant factor in radio, so many people sites to the radio and advertisement for products and services would reach millions at a time. Television has had its share of influence when it comes to advertising and sitcoms about family life. An advertisement during the Super Bowl can cost millions of dollars because of the amount of viewers the ad would reach. In the ass’s, ass’s, and ass’s television sitcoms we watched by millions prime time network programming. Since the internet and other on line based alternatives emerged prime time network programming has lost half of its viewers.

Other networks cast people for reality shows to come up with a concept to appeal to a younger demographic. Incorporating social networking sites in with reality television shows has brought some interest back to television. Cultural values and ideas are transmitted through the media. If you notice most teenagers you see walking around dress like their favorite celebrity. Many fashion trends, maybe all fashion trends are stated by advertising. So many people in these times claim to be original but we all are affected by the media and its content.

Mass media

Decisions are made and documented on such issues as desired place of birth, the preferred skilled birth attendant, items required for birth, riot companion, getting a compatible blood donor, and arranging in advance for transport. Other elements of birth preparedness include knowledge of expected date of delivery, HIVE testing, embroiling resources to pay for services, arranging for someone to take care of the family during delivery, importance of postnatal care, importance of exclusive breastfeeding, and contraception. World Health Organization estimates that women die from pregnancy and childbirth related complications each year, with 99% of these deaths occurring in developing countries. Birth preparedness and complication readiness by mothers are radical in reducing it. 2. Objectives of the study To determine the knowledge of married women that are yet to complete their family size on birth preparedness. To assess their knowledge of pregnancy complication To identify factors responsible for their unpleasantness To identify various ways they prepare 3.

Operational definitions 1 . Assessment: Assessment is the method of measuring the degree of competence of another person’s ability to perform physically and/or intellectual skills. In this study assessment is the act of Judging knowledge of primordial women on birth preparedness. 2. Birth preparedness: Birth preparedness refers to a state of readiness for the emergence of the baby. In this study, birth preparedness means preliminary preparation during the pregnancy. It includes antenatal, intranasal, and postnatal, preparations.

It includes preparations regarding diet, cloths, transport, emergency and its management, danger signs of impending labor, exercise, place of delivery, hygienic practices, and complications during the postnatal period. 3. Complication readiness: Complication readiness refers seeking services that will cater for any challenges of pregnancy and delivery if they occur. 4. Assumptions The study assumes that: Birth preparedness and complication promotes the health of the women Birth preparedness and complication readiness gains the knowledge women.

Material and Methods 5. 1 Source of data Married women who are yet to complete their family size in ill Fife 5. Research design Descriptive survey design. 5. Settings The study will be conducted in ill Fife town 5. Population 5. Method of data collection procedure Purposive sampling technique will be used to select the sample. 5. Sample size In this study, sample will be 100 married women who are yet to complete their family size. 5. Inclusion criteria Married women yet to complete the family size who are: Accessible during the study.

Willing to participate in the study. 5. Exclusion criteria Post menopausal mothers. 6. Instruments intended to be used In this study, a structured questionnaire on birth preparedness will be used as an instrument to collect the data. 7. Data collection method Subjects will be selected according to the selection of criteria. Consent will be taken from the subjects. The subjects’ knowledge on birth preparedness will be assessed by a structured questionnaire. 8. Plan for data analysis Data will be analyses by using the descriptive and inferential statistics.

Effects of Mass Media Worksheet

For a large part of the 20th century, televisions and radios where stationary devices. More recently, devices such as, laptops, pads, and smartness allow people to view magazine articles, radio programs, songs, TV shows, and movies, from almost any location they want. On the Internet, multiple images, texts, and sounds are digitally reproduced and transmitted globally. These devices are constantly being update to provide consumers with the newest technologies possible. The Internet and social media, such as Faceable and e-mail are other large developments in the evolution of mass media.

In fact, Faceable alone has more than 500 million users worldwide. Social media allows people from all over he world to connect through ongoing online conversations, share stories and interests, and to produce their own media content. This also gives people the choice to upload photos and homemade videos, and share them with others around the world. The media convergence has allowed media marketers to consolidate multiple media services such as, cable connections, phone services, television transmissions, and Internet access, under one corporate umbrella.

For example, when a company owns more than on media outlet they can have a reporter or producer to create multiple different versions of the same story for multiple media outlets. This helps impasses to manage resources and maximize profits. I How did each development influence American culture? I The rapid development of cable television and the Internet have caused traditional leaders in communication to lose some of their control over information.

For example, BBC, CBS, and NBC lost some of their audience to other networks, like MET, CNN, MASC., Fox News, Comedy Central, and radio talk shows. Internet Floggers have become a large factor in the news as well because blobbing allows anyone to speak their mind at any time. The Internet and social media are changing the ways in which we absorb and interact with the media culture. Sending letters through the mail has, to some, become a thing of the past, as e-mail has become the quickest way to send communication to one person or a group of people in a matter of seconds.

In addition, several repressive and totalitarian regimes have had difficulties with controlling messages sent through the borderless Internet. Along with these types of developments, we have also seen differences in the types of content that is put on news shows, television shows, video games, radio shows, and the Internet. From personal problems to dangerous stunts, this type of content has consumers worried about the overwhelming amount of information now available.

Mass media

“What the mass media offers is not popular art, but entertainment which is intended to be consumed like food, forgotten, and replaced by a new dish”(Aden). Mass media plays a huge role in American society today. Whether mass media has any direct correlation to the violence we see today is up for discussion. The only data which shows a clear relationship between mass media and aggressive behavior occurs when the impression of aggression is permissible.

Research suggests that limed violence must be accompanied by a complex set of personal and social circumstances in order to produce aggression. There is some evidence that portrays mass media to have influences on public taste, values, and passivity, although more research is needed. The opinions of the mass audience do not seem to be formed by the media. Rather, the interested segment the audience receives from media, which serves in the role of interpersonal communicator, which influences the remainder of the community. Therefore research shows no direct correlation between violent behavior and mass media.

In one article there appears to be a clear link between media consumption and aggression. In the article they believe that, “within the past century media violence has only increased” (In Debate). They say there is mounting evidence for an increased Leather 2 risk of attention, behavioral, and educational problems with extended exposure to TV and computer games. Lab experiments are condemned for not showing lasting effects. Brain imaging studies are derided for being too small and can not be connected to the real world. This ultimately leads to the conclusion that there is Just not enough data.

Factors like these are probably more dominant then media, however are still complex issues. People can still avoid any potential risk to violence through mass media by simply monitoring children’s use of video games and television. This problem could arise only under the circumstances such as if the child had a harsh upbringing, with no immediate family. Children have a set gender role. They are told as an infant from day one how they should portray ourselves or who they should be as an individual. Sometimes people are not given the opportunity to grow and in some cases are abused.

People become a victim to bullying and can get rejected from family or peer groups. If they are neglected in their childhood it can have an immediate impact on your future. For example, In 1923 there was a girl by the name of “Sybil” who perceived to have sixteen different personalities. In her upbringing she was subjected to many years of astonishing sexual and sadistic abuse. The abuse was so harsh that she had to attend physiotherapy due to her emotional breakdowns and violent outbursts. Fortunately she was medicated with immediate help.

In one article it ascribes a teenager that got convicted for stealing something that “doesn’t exist” (Weiss). Although this isn’t physical violence, cyber bullying can still be traumatizing. The child stole two virtual items while playing the game Reinsurance, a Leather 3 free multilayer game online. His attorney argued against the court saying that the stolen items were neither tangible nor material and had no economic value. The court saw no sympathy and out ruled them saying that the time the thirteen year old victim spent in the game trying to earn the objects gave them great value.

Video Ames, even violent ones, are not compensated for the violence we see but are “escapism’s” (Weiss). Some video games such as Reinsurance, actually encourage players to use real money to purchase in-game currency. In return this money is used to build highly desirable objects in the virtual world. One can’t fathom how this teenager is being punished from a real-world court system through the behavior of a video game. It seems unfair to initially penalize the teenager for his actions, for he did not place any harm on anyone. People believe that it is common knowledge that gory films and TV shows are a cause of violent behavior.

But then again “common knowledge” doesn’t always correspond to reality. The recent mass shootings in Arizona, Colorado, Connecticut, and elsewhere are terrible, but they are only special cases. Solid statistics show that even as media violence has increased, overall criminal violence has decreased dramatically. It is even known that related “gun homicides are down 49 percent since 1993” (Dickey). In conclusion there is little to no evidence that shows that the mass media sparks violence in today’s society. In the article “In Debate” it states that, “there is no lasting evidence likely to imitate the violence people see on a screen”.

If someone they see as a “good guy’ is using the violence to solve a problem, there are no realistic consequences for the violence (Garrison). The primary cause of violence today is social upbringing, not what people listen to in the media. A child’s personality will be Leather 4 constructed by their families believes and values, not what they watch on TV. For example, if a child’s parents are abusive that child with be more than likely to grow up as an abusive person. A child’s personality is not formulated by what they watch n TV, instead the values that are instilled upon them during childhood.

Effects of mass media

Material Effects of Mass Media Worksheet Write brief 250-to 300-word answers to each of the following: Questions Answers What were the major developments in the evolution of mass media during the 20th century? Mass media was designed to attract a large audience. The major developments in the evolution of mass media during the 20th century were radio, printing, electronics and digital media. The radio was less expensive than television. With the development of the radio we are able to hear different musical genres, sews, advertising, local information and live events.

Also the radio is used to make hit songs and help bring up artists and make them famous. The radio Printing can be traced back to hundreds of years ago, but in the past century it has evolved into development of mass quantities at much lower costs. Commercial and Political leaders used printing media as their key tool to maintain social order and share information. Television became a huge hit; it provided people with a visual view of news and entertainment. The internet was invented and became one of the fastest says of communicating, and gathering information.

The internet provides people with practically every type of information, events, history, communication with emails and chatting sites. The internet made a huge impact and people Just loved it. Satellite Communications can transmit news directly, giving remarkable power television to communicate communication major world events in real time. Digital forms are images, texts, emails, and sounds. Through emails and texts you are able to send images and sounds. This is a worldwide source of media development. It makes immunization livelier and more interesting and definitely catches attention.

How did each development influence American culture? Each development had a great influence on American Culture. It made communication so much easier and faster that almost everyone fell in love with these great inventions. Now people can communicate with anyone all around the world without having to write a letter and wait months for a reply. It also has had a great impact on education. Now we can study online, have video conferences and any other type of communication without having to struggle or spend too much time ravening.

Americans love to have their news and what better way to get the information so fast than the radio internet or television. With the evolution of the radio, print, internet, Satellite communication, digital media, it has made the world a better and more advanced place for us. People want their news pretty much as soon as something happens and with the evolution of these developments they get it faster than ever. It has made learning easier, from learning in a classroom to learning on the road; we have better opportunities to become successful.

On a negative note, t has made people a bit lazy. There is more obesity from lack of daily exercise. With new developments more and more people Just stay stuck to a chair all day listening to the radio, watching TV, playing video games or being on the internet and all other advanced tools. Although these new developments are made to help advance our skills, to keep us entertained and aware of all that is going on people should still live an active lifestyle. As technology advances it will get more and more attention from the audience and everyone will love it and appreciate it even more.